You have the option of making your page private during page creation, by selecting HIDE FROM PUBLIC SEARCH RESULTS. You can also go back and make the page private anytime by clicking the PAGE SETTINGS button on your page and clicking the same checkbox in the page settings window. Once you make your page private, only those you give the link to have your permission to view the page.
NOTE: It is possible for others to share your page's link. If you do not wish for your link to be shared by others, it is important to ask when you share that the link is kept private.